This book examines the repair strategies that Karanga and Zezuru, two dialects of Shona, a Bantu language, employ to achieve the CV syllable and the disyllabic Prosodic Word preferred phonological structures in Shona. Often morpheme concatenation creates phonological structures that do not conform to these preferred structures. The overall analysis is couched in Optimality Theory. Hiatus resolution strategies are conditioned by prosodic domains, consequently, a detailed prosodic parsing is required. The relevant domains are The Prosodic Stem, Prosodic Word and the Clitic Group. Owing to the impossibility of unifying cliticization and coalescence facts with the other strategies in a single constraint ranking, two strata are posited the Word (lexical) and the Postlexical using the Lexical Phonology and Morphology-Optimality Theory (Kiparsky 2000). Glide formation is the default strategy at the Word level and coalescence at the Postlexical. All the hiatus-breakers in Karanga and Zezuru, [j w ], are analyzed as products of spreading. In minimality, Zezuru enforces Word Minimality at the expense of Onset, and Karanga enforces Onset at the expense of Word Minimality.
This book provides insights into the aspect of language concerned with expressing and giving shape to events in the external world and of the internal world of consciousness for a more effective information sharing system, especially in specialised domains in less widely used languages which, for a very long time, as a result of cynicism, have faced the problem of 'institutionalised' pessimism in the business of information sharing. Using the knowledge approach (units, structure, representation, evolution, acquisition of knowledge), the book investigates how cognitive frames/models could be used in understanding a word, term or concept for effective translation from and into as many languages as is desirable.
This book would serve as an ideal guide for B.E., B.Tech., B.S., B.Sc, B.C.A., undergraduate students of Computer Science and Engineering, Information Technology, Electronics and Communication Engineering who wish to take up projects on applications of fog and edge computing. Students pursuing postgraduate course in Science and Engineering, M.E., M.Tech., M.S., M.Sc., M.C.A. students will find this book useful for their projects. Research Scholars working in the area of fog computing, edge computing and Internet of Things will find this book as a handy reference guide for their M.Phil., Ph.D. D.Sc., and other post-doctoral research works. Software and Hardware Engineers working in IT and ITES sector specifically on fog computing, edge computing and IoT domains, would find this book as a useful resource. As a word of conclusion, I believe that the reader will find this book as a helpful guide and a valuable source of information about principles of fog and edge computing.
The text presents in historical perspective the theoretical frameworks and the main results in this domain of solving word problems in mathematics education that the author acquired during the period 1987-2003. The text deals with four major domains: Comparative analysis of solving strategies, Method of atomic analysis, From atomic analysis to analysis of solving strategies of word problems, From analysis of behaviours to analysis of situations. Each part includes a synthetic summary of the respective hypotheses, conditions of observations and results of the research supplemented either by bibliographic references or a respective document in the Appendices with more detailed information. What is important in this section are the results which were reached and questions that they led to, this will allow illustration and explanation of evolution and development of new frameworks and new perspectives.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Semantic dementia (SD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic memory in both the verbal and non-verbal domains. The most common presenting symptoms are in the verbal domain however (with loss of word meaning) and it is therefore often characterized (incorrectly) as a primary language disorder (a so-called progressive fluent aphasia). SD is one of the three canonical clinical syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. SD is a clinically-defined syndrome, but is associated with predominantly temporal lobe atrophy (left greater than right) and hence is sometimes called temporal variant FTLD (tvFTLD).
Focusing on translating media, legal and technical texts, this book is of significant importance to the field of translation between English and Arabic. The central aim of the book is to provide translation students at different levels as well as translators with a detailed analysis of the features of media, legal and technical texts to promote their understanding of the nature of such texts. The exercises contained in each section aim to train students on translating sentences and passages from newspapers, books and other documents focusing on the three aforementioned topics. Glossaries containing some key words follow the exercises to facilitate the translation process. The book is of great use to translation students wishing to explore Arabic and English texts in different domains. Understanding the features of each text type can improve students' necessary translation skills. This text introduces the students to a short review on translation and equivalence between English and Arabic. In addition, it classifies translation problems in different domains. Furthermore, this manuscript presents translation pitfalls at various structural levels, the word, phrase and sentence
This book gives the first detailed coherent treatment of a relatively young branch of statistical physics - nonlinear nonequilibrium and fluctuation-dissipative thermo dynamics. This area of research has taken shape fairly recently: its development began in 1959. The earlier theory -linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics - is in principle a simple special case of the new theory. Despite the fact that the title of this book includes the word "nonlinear", it also covers the results of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The presentation of the linear and nonlinear theories is done within a common theoretical framework that is not subject to the linearity condition. The author hopes that the reader will perceive the intrinsic unity of this discipline, and the uniformity and generality of its constituent parts. This theory has a wide variety of applications in various domains of physics and physical chemistry, enabling one to calculate thermal fluctuations in various nonlinear systems. The book is divided into two volumes. Fluctuation-dissipation theorems (or relations) of various types (linear, quadratic and cubic, classical and quantum) are considered in the first volume. Here one encounters the Markov and non-Markov fluctuation-dissipation theorems (FDTs), theorems of the first, second and third kinds. Nonlinear FDTs are less well known than their linear counterparts.
Why attaining nativelike pronunciation is so difficult in adult L2A? This book attempts to take a purely linguistic approach to find the reason by hypothising that the acquisition of even a segmental sound is more than the physical matter of getting the articulators to move correctly and involves phonological rules and principles. The acquisition of Korean stop sounds (ie /p,t,k/,/pp,tt,kk/ and/ph,th,kh/) is investigated with regard to adult L2A in this book. Observing that the English- and Finnish-speaking L2 learners have far greater difficulty in their production of stops involved in the tensification rule constrained by syntax than in their production of word-initial stops, it is concluded that the difficulty of mastering L2 phonology is due to the complexity of phonological rules applying beyond the component of phonology or across phonological domains in the prosodic hierarchy, some of which provide a means for mapping the syntax to the phonology. Therefore, it is posited that acquiring the target pronunciation demands complex phonological rules and principles of a segment but does not simply involve the physically correct articulation.
Capturing word meaning is one of the challenges of natural language processing (NLP). Formal models of meaning such as semantic networks of words or concepts are knowledge repositories used in a variety of applications. To be effectively used, these networks have to be large or, at least, adapted to specific domains. Our main goal is to contribute practically to the research on semantic networks learning models by covering different aspects of the task. We propose a novel probabilistic model for learning semantic networks that expands existing semantic networks taking into accounts both corpus-extracted evidences and the structure of the generated semantic networks. The model exploits structural properties of target relations such as transitivity during learning. Our model presents some innovations in estimating the probabilities. We then propose two extensions of our probabilistic model: a model for learning from a generic domain that can be exploited to extract new information in a specific domain and an incremental ontology learning system that puts human validations in the learning loop.