Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Odawara Domain ( , Odawara-han)was a Japanese domain of the Edo period, located in western Sagami Province(modern-day Kanagawa Prefecture). It was centered on Odawara Castle in what is now the city of Odawara. Following the defeat of the Late H j clan in the Battle of Odawara by the forces of Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1590, their vast territories in the Kant region were assigned to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu selected Edo to be the headquarters of his new domains, and assigned his close retainer, kubo Tadayo to rebuild Odawara Castle and to rule as a daimy over the strategically important post town and to guard the approaches to Edo from the west via the Hakone Pass. kubo Tadayo''s territory included 147 villages in Ashigarakami and Ashigarashimo districts with total revenues of 40,000 koku. His son Tadachika served in the Tokugawa shogunate as a r j and had his revenues increased by 20,000 koku with additional territories in Musashi Province.
The major objective of this study is to describe the patterns of language use of various ethno-linguistic groups in bilingual community, particularly in Shone town.The patterns of bilingualism,language shift and maintenance through different generations were over-viewed in the study. The result of the study revealed that Shone is a multilingual town with seven languages in use: Hadiyyisa, Amharic, Wolaytato, Kambatisata, Afan Oromo, Gurage and English. The use of these languages in the family domain and in the out-door domains such as neighborhood, market place, worship places,school,etc.were described thoroughly. The attitude of different linguistic groups towards various languages was also part of the description. Furthermore, code-switching and borrowing as the linguistic consequences of language contact were described briefly. The author hopes that the study will provide relevant information for practitioners who are engaged in language related activities such as language planning, curriculum development, etc. Moreover, social planners and development workers can make use of this study.
This book focuses on children s language in a bilingual community in East Java, Indonesia. It has documented Javanese children s language in relation to their proficiency, use and attitudes in a big city, a small town and a village. The questionnaires, tests, observation and interviews were employed. Children s proficiency in Indonesian is higher than in Javanese. They are not able to manipulate Javanese speech levels properly. Most city children reported using Indonesian with their all interlocutors whereas most village children reported using Javanese. This indicates unnatural intergenerational language transmission in the city. Most children showed negative attitudes towards Javanese, their ethnic language. Javanese experiences domain shifting and is incompatible with the emergence of new domains in the modern time. Unless systematic support is forthcoming, Javanese will be abandoned by Javanese children, originated in the city.