"Eric Evans has written a fantastic book on how you can make the design of your software match your mental model of the problem domain you are addressing. "His book is very compatible with XP. It is not about drawing pictures of a domain; it is about how you think of it, the language you use to talk about it, and how you organize your software to reflect your improving understanding of it. Eric thinks that learning about your problem domain is as likely to happen at the end of your project as at the beginning, and so refactoring is a big part of his technique. "The book is a fun read. Eric has lots of interesting stories, and he has a way with words. I see this book as essential reading for software developers-it is a future classic." - Ralph Johnson , author of Design Patterns "If you don't think you are getting value from your investment in object-oriented programming, this book will tell you what you've forgotten to do. "Eric Evans convincingly argues for the importance of domain modeling as the central focus of development and provides a solid framework and set of techniques for accomplishing it. This is timeless wisdom, and will hold up long after the methodologies du jour have gone out of fashion." - Dave Collins , author of Designing Object-Oriented User Interfaces "Eric weaves real-world experience modeling-and building-business applications into a practical, useful book. Written from the perspective of a trusted practitioner, Eric's descriptions of ubiquitous language, the benefits of sharing models with users, object life-cycle management, logical and physical application structuring, and the process and results of deep refactoring are major contributions to our field." - Luke Hohmann , author of Beyond Software Architecture This book belongs on the shelf of every thoughtful software developer. --Kent Beck What Eric has managed to capture is a part of the design process that experienced object designers have always used, but that we have been singularly unsuccessful as a group in conveying to the rest of the industry. We've given away bits and pieces of this knowledge...but we've never organized and systematized the principles of building domain logic. This book is important. --Kyle Brown, author of Enterprise Java(TM) Programming with IBM® WebSphere® The software development community widely acknowledges that domain modeling is central to software design. Through domain models, software developers are able to express rich functionality and translate it into a software implementation that truly serves the needs of its users. But despite its obvious importance, there are few practical resources that explain how to incorporate effective domain modeling into the software development process. Domain-Driven Design fills that need. This is not a book about specific technologies. It offers readers a systematic approach to domain-driven design, presenting an extensive set of design best practices, experience-based techniques, and fundamental principles that facilitate the development of software projects facing complex domains. Intertwining design and development practice, this book incorporates numerous examples based on actual projects to illustrate the application of domain-driven design to real-world software development. Readers learn how to use a domain model to make a complex development effort more focused and dynamic. A core of best practices and standard patterns provides a common language for the development team. A shift in emphasis--refactoring not just the code but the model underlying the code--in combination with the frequent iterations of Agile development leads to deeper insight into domains and enhanced communication between domain expert and programmer. Domain-Dr
Revision with unchanged content. We investigate the problem of descriptive learning--learning rules that describe the underlying structure of a domain--in rich, qualitative worlds. Previous approaches to this problem have searched for laws in top-down, enumerative fashion. We present algorithms that belong to an alternative, data-driven search paradigm. In our algorithms, search is guided not by relationships between the forms of the hypothesized rules, but by correlations in the data they represent. We exploit anomalies in this data, hypothesizing that that patterns that are unlikely to have arisen by chance must represent features of the domain. We describe data-driven methods that discover rules in both propositional and relational domains. We apply our methods to the problem of finding planning invariants: formulae that are true in every reachable state of a planning world. Our methods provide a novel inductive approach to this problem. They find invariants from just a few reachable-state descriptions. They discover laws comparable in quality and complexity to those discovered by specialized planning-invariant discovery systems that require a far greater deal of specialized knowledge about the domain.
Increasingly, we live in a world rich in embedded processors. The modern home, office, factory, and other environments, or domains, have different types of hardware and software that need to interoperate almost invisibly. This book presents one such prototype system, called AutoHAN, that aims to enable automation with respect to applications and resources and has used the home domain as a reference framework without loss of generality. Applications are allowed to enter a domain only after their behaviour has been formally verified not to conflict with that of other applications or to violate the pre-defined rules shaping domain behaviour. This work focuses on modelling domains and the accompanying rules in an ontology substrate. The ontology is itself expressed in first-order logic and hence enjoys classification and reasoning support. Overall, this design allows reliable control of the domain free from unintended interactions. This book is a must-read for researchers, developers, and vendors in the fields of intelligent environments and rule-based control. The research has applications in numerous areas of automation, e.g., homes, workplaces, factories, schools, vehicles, etc.
The new technologies that were developed in the past years, the different methods and ways to represent nature or geographical phenomena, bring a new perspective to this vast geographic domain. Both human and physical geography have a wide applicability in informatics through programs like ArmMap , ArcScene , ArcView , Erdas and many more. These software products add an impressive look that eases the preview, interpretation, analysis and the extraction of new information. The impact study of the Firiza dam construction over the landscape using GIS techniques is analyzing this zone by following a new approach, and from different perspectives than any study yet made on that area, presenting the Firiza-Stramtori dam construction impact over the landscape with the help of the programs mentioned above, in order to draw a new, modern image, an expressive but also very rich (so to say) in information. This study should be useful for people coming from various domains as the book was constructed so that both the inexperienced and the advanced users of GISs could understand and gain something from it.
In the domain of Organizational Behaviour, studies on personality and stress has always been a fascinating area of inquiry. Existing researches fail to fully substantiate the liaison between these two robust concepts. The present book is an honest attempt to explore the interface between personality types and stress propensities of teacher educators in higher education, which lies vastly unexplored. The research study is comprehensive in all respects since it furnishes a theoretical understanding, coupled with a rich empirical analysis that seeks to investigate the relationship between the twin factors used in the study and reach a logical conclusion to this analogy therefrom. This book shall be of immense relevance to academicians, practitioners and researchers dealing in the aforesaid domains, thus enlightening them in their pursuit of knowledge.
This book reviews a series of functional and immunological studies of the human sperm proteome. Two of the most cited studies originate from the examination of capacitation-induced protein modifications, which led to the cloning and characterisation of two new phospho-regulated cancer-testis antigens, named AKAP3 and CABYR. AKAP3 is a member of the A kinase anchoring protein-family, which provides spatial and temporal specificity to the cAMP-PKA pathway. In addition to scaffolding PKA, PDE and protein phosphatases, AKAP members also bind proteins that share homology to the RII dimerization/docking (R2D2) domain of PKA regulatory subunit. CABYR likewise interacts with a diverse array of signal tranducer molecules via its SH3-, R2D2-, and proline-rich extension-like domains. AKAP3 and CABYR associate in high molecular weight multi-protein complexes, which appear to regulate the energy supply to and motion of the sperm flagellum. The putative functional role of the CABYR signalling scaffold in cancer cells is discussed.
This thesis deals with new techniques to construct a strong convex relaxation for a mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP). While local optimization software can quickly identify promising operating points of MINLPs, the solution of the convex relaxation provides a global bound on the optimal value of the MINLP that can be used to evaluate the quality of the local solution. Certainly, the efficiency of this evaluation is strongly dependent on the quality of the convex relaxation.Convex relaxations of general MINLPs can be constructed by replacing each nonlinear function occurring in the model description by convex underestimating and concave overestimating functions. In this setting, it is desired to use the best possible convex underestimator and concave overestimator of a given function over an underlying domain — the so-called convex and concave envelope, respectively. However, the computation of these envelopes can be extremely difficult so that analytical expressions for envelopes are only available for some classes of well-structured functions.Another factor influencing the strength of the estimators is the size of the underlying domain: The smaller the domain, the better the quality of the estimators. In many applications the initial domains of the variables are chosen rather conservatively while tighter bounds are implicitly given by the constraint set of the MINLP. Thus, bound tightening techniques, which exploit the information of the constraint set, are an essential ingredient to improve the estimators and to accelerate global optimization algorithms.The focus of this thesis lies on the development and computational analysis of new convex relaxations for MINLPs, especially for two applications from chemical engineering. In detail, we derive a new bound tightening technique for a general structure used for modeling chemical processes and provide different approaches to generate strong convex relaxations for various nonlinear functions.Initially, we aim at the optimal design of hybrid distillation/melt-crystallization processes, a novel process configuration to separate a m ixture into its component. A crucial part in the formal representation of this process as well as other separation processes is to model the mass conservation within the process. We exploit the analytical properties of the corresponding equation system to reduce the domains of the involved variables. Using the proposed technique, we can accelerate the computations for hybrid distillation/melt-crystallization processes significantly compared to standard software.Then, we concentrate on the generation of convex relaxations for nonlinear functions. First, we exploit the existing theory for two interesting classes of bivariate functions. On the one hand, we elaborate, implement, and illustrate the strength of a cut-generation algorithm for bivariate functions which are convex or concave in each variable and for which the sign of the Hessian is the same over the entire domain. On the other hand, relaxation strategies for advanced equilibrium functions in chromatographic separation processes are analyzed and finally applied to completely describe the feasible separation regions of these processes.Second, we suggest to derive the envelopes in an extended space to overcome the combinatorial difficulties involved in the computation of the convex envelope in the original space. In particular, we consider a class of functions accounting for a large amount of all nonlinearities in common benchmark libraries. These functions are component-wise concave in one part of the variables and convex in the other part of the variables. For this general class of functions the convex envelopes in the original variable space have not been discovered so far. We provide closed-form expressions for the extended formulation of their convex envelopes based on the simultaneous convexification with multilinear monomials. By construction, this approach does not only yield an extended formulation for the convex envelope of a function, but also a strong simultaneous relaxation of the function and the involved multilinear monomials. Several examples show that this simultaneous relaxation can be orders of magnitude better than the individual relaxation of the functions.Finally, inspired by the strength and the computational impact of the simultaneous relaxation of a function and multilinear monomials, we further focus on the simultaneous convexification of several functions. In such an approach the relaxation of a MINLP involving several functions in the same variables is much tighter because the interdependence between the different functions is taken into account. We study the simultaneous convex hull of several functions for which we derive theoretical results concerning their inner and outer description by means of the rich theory of convex envelopes. Moreover, we apply these results to provide formulas for tight convex relaxations of several univariate convex functions.Implementations of all convexification techniques are available as plugins for the open-source MINLP solver scip. The computational results of several case studies reveal the benefit of the proposed techniques compared to state-of-the-art methods.
Information and Communication Technologies provide for a long time already the backbone of telecommunication networks, such that communication services represent an elementary foundation of today’s globally connected economy. The telecommunication landscape has experienced dramatic transformations through the convergence of the Telecom and the Internet worlds. The previously closed telecommunication domain is currently transforming itself through the so-called NGN evolution into a highly dynamic multiservice infrastructure, supporting rich multimedia applications, as well as providing comprehensive support for various access technologies.The control layer of such NGNs is then of paramount importance, as representing the convergent mediator between access and services. The use and the optimization of the IP-Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) was researched and considered in this domain for many years now, such that today it represents the world-wide recognized control platform for fixed and mobile NGNs.Research on protocols and services for such NGN architectures, due to the convergence of technologies, applications and business models, as well as for enabling highly dynamic and short innovation cycles, is highly complex and requires early access to vendor independent - yet close to real life systems - validation environments, the so-called open technology test-beds.The present thesis describes the extensive research of the author over the last nine years in the field of open NGN test-beds. It focuses on the design, development and deployment of the Open Source IMS Core project, which represents since years the foundation of numerous NGN test-beds and countless NGN Research & Development projects in the academia as well as the industry domain around the globe. A major emphasis is given for ensuring flexibility, performance, reference functionality and inter-operability, as well as satisfying elementary design principles of such test-bed toolkits.The study also describes and evaluates the use of Open Source principles, highlighting the advantages of using it in regard to the creation, impact and sustainability of a global OpenIMSCore research community.Moreover, the work documents that the essential design principles and methodology employed can be reused in a generic way to create test-bed toolkits in other technology domains. This is shown by introducing the OpenEPC project, which provides for seamless integration of different mobile broadband technologies.
This text reviews the field of digital image processing from the different perspectives offered by the separate domains of signal processing and pattern recognition. The book describes a rich array of applications, representing the latest trends in industry and academic research. To inspire further interest in the field, a selection of worked-out numerical problems is also included in the text. The content is presented in an accessible manner, examining each topic in depth without assuming any prior knowledge from the reader, and providing additional background material in the appendices. Features: covers image enhancement techniques in the spatial domain, the frequency domain, and the wavelet domain, reviews compression methods and formats for encoding images, discusses morphology-based image processing, investigates the modeling of object recognition in the human visual system, provides supplementary material, including MATLAB and C++ code, and interactive GUI-based modules, at an associated website.