High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In logic and mathematics, a finitary operation is a function of the form : X1 × × Xk Y. The sets Xj are the called the domains of the operation, the set Y is called the codomain of the operation, and the fixed non-negative integer k is called the arity of the operation. An operation of arity zero, called a nullary operation, is simply an element of the codomain Y. An operation of arity k is called a k-ary operation. Thus a k-ary operation is a (k+1)-ary relation that is functional on its first k domains. Elements of the functional domains are called arguments. Elements of the codomain are called values.
This book is devoted to the study of the functional architecture of the visual cortex. Its geometrical structure is the differential geometry of the connectivity between neural cells. This connectivity is building and shaping the hidden brain structures underlying visual perception. The story of the problem runs over the last 30 years, since the discovery of Hubel and Wiesel of the modular structure of the primary visual cortex, and slowly cams towards a theoretical understanding of the experimental data on what we now know as functional architecture of the primary visual cortex.Experimental data comes from several domains: neurophysiology, phenomenology of perception and neurocognitive imaging. Imaging techniques like functional MRI and diffusion tensor MRI allow to deepen the study of cortical structures. Due to this variety of experimental data, neuromathematematics deals with modelling both cortical structures and perceptual spaces.From the mathematical point of view, neuromathematical call for new instruments of pure mathematics: sub-Riemannian geometry models horizontal connectivity, harmonic analysis in non commutative groups allows to understand pinwheels structure, as well as non-linear dimensionality reduction is at the base of many neural morphologies and possibly of the emergence of perceptual units. But at the center of the neurogeometry is the problem of harmonizing contemporary mathematical instruments with neurophysiological findings and phenomenological experiments in an unitary science of vision.The contributions to this book come from the very founders of the discipline.
This volume includes several invited lectures given at the International Workshop "Analysis, Partial Differential Equations and Applications", held at the Mathematical Department of Sapienza University of Rome, on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Vladimir G. Maz'ya, a renowned mathematician and one of the main experts in the field of pure and applied analysis.The book aims at spreading the seminal ideas of Maz'ya to a larger audience in faculties of sciences and engineering. In fact, all articles were inspired by previous works of Maz'ya in several frameworks, including classical and contemporary problems connected with boundary and initial value problems for elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic operators, Schrödinger-type equations, mathematical theory of elasticity, potential theory, capacity, singular integral operators, p-Laplacians, functional analysis, and approximation theory. Maz'ya is author of more than 450 papers and 20 books. In his long career he obtained many astonishing and frequently cited results in the theory of harmonic potentials on non-smooth domains, potential and capacity theories, spaces of functions with bounded variation, maximum principle for higher-order elliptic equations, Sobolev multipliers, approximate approximations, etc. The topics included in this volume will be particularly useful to all researchers who are interested in achieving a deeper understanding of the large expertise of Vladimir Maz'ya.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis, ATVA 2008, held in Seoul, Korea, in October 2008. The 21 revised full papers 5 short papers and 7 tool papers presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 82 submissions. The focos lies on theoretical methods to achieve correct software or hardware systems, including both functional and non functional aspects, as well as on applications of theory in engineering methods and particular domains and handling of practical problems occurring in tools. The papers are organized in topical sections on model checking, software verification, decision procedures, linear-time analysis, tool demonstration papers, timed and stochastic systems, theory, and short papers.
In this monograph Iffat has explored the daily stressors experienced by adolescents in a socio- cultural perspective. A multilevel assessment approach is used to identify and analyze coping patterns among adolescents. It is done at micro and macro levels and for this purpose Dispositional, Situational and Daily coping methods were used. Findings of this study suggest that adolescents are stressed mainly in four domains namely academics, interpersonal, intrapersonal and socio environmental. Adolescents rely mostly on functional coping strategies and they mostly use religious coping and planning for the solution of their daily stressors. This study was conducted with a view to help those professionals who deal with adolescents be educated about the areas of adolescent stress that can interfere with their progress in academic or non-ademic setting. This book will also be of interest to parents,teachers and adolescents themselves.
Over the last two decades, a major challenge for researchers working on modeling and evaluation of computer-based systems has been the assessment of system Non Functional Properties (NFP) such as performance, scalability, dependability and security.In this book, the authors present cutting-edge model-driven techniques for modeling and analysis of software dependability. Most of them are based on the use of UML as software specification language. From the software system specification point of view, such techniques exploit the standard extension mechanisms of UML (i.e., UML profiling). UML profiles enable software engineers to add non-functional properties to the software model, in addition to the functional ones. The authors detail the state of the art on UML profile proposals for dependability specification and rigorously describe the trade-off they accomplish. The focus is mainly on RAMS (reliability, availability, maintainability and safety) properties. Among the existing profiles, they emphasize the DAM (Dependability Analysis and Modeling) profile, which attempts to unify, under a common umbrella, the previous UML profiles from literature, providing capabilities for dependability specification and analysis. In addition, they describe two prominent model-to-model transformation techniques, which support the generation of the analysis model and allow for further assessment of different RAMS properties. Case studies from different domains are also presented, in order to provide practitioners with examples of how to apply the aforementioned techniques.Researchers and students will learn basic dependability concepts and how to model them using UML and its extensions. They will also gain insights into dependability analysis techniques through the use of appropriate modeling formalisms as well as of model-to-model transformation techniques for deriving dependability analysis models from UML specifications. Moreover, software practitioners will find a unified framework for the specification of dependability requirements and properties of UML, and will benefit from the detailed case studies.
Wandala is a hitherto undescribed Central Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic approach, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all functional domains grammaticalized in the language. The grammatical structure of Wandala is quite different from the structure of other Chadic languages described thus far in both the formal means and the functions that have been grammaticalized. The grammar provides proofs for the postulated hypotheses concerning forms and functions. The grammar is written in a style accessible to linguists working within different theoretical frameworks. The phonology is characterized by a rich consonantal system, a three vowel system, and a two tone system. The language has abundant vowel insertion rules and a vowel harmony system. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal position, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final position. The two rules allow the parsing of the clause into constituents. The language has three types of reduplication of verbs, two of which code aspectual and modal distinctions. The negative paradigms of verbs differ from affirmative paradigms in the coding of subject. The pronominal affixes and extensive system of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic relations within the clause. Wandala has unusual clausal structure, in that in a pragmatically neutral verbal clause, there is only one nominal argument, either the subject or the object. These arguments can follow a variety of constituents. The grammatical role of that argument is coded by inflectional markers on the verb and most interestingly, on whatever lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical relations added to verbs are different for different classes of verbs.
Protein-protein interactions are extremely valuable towards protein functions and cellular processes or we can say that protein-protein interactions play an important role in living cells. Therefore, if we can control the interactions between proteins, as a result, we can control some functionality of cells. Main functionality of a protein is carried out by its domains. So, domain is a structural or/and functional unit of protein. Behind protein-protein interactions there exist some domain-domain interactions. Therefore, under standing protein-protein interaction at domain level gives a global view of protein-protein interaction network.In this book, we have made an attempt to infer domain-domain interactions from interacting and non-interacting protein pairs then we have predicted protein-protein interactions based on inferred domain-domain interactions.
The main objectives of this book are to proved annotation of dengue virus serotypes genomes at nucleotide level for better understanding and ease organization. Genome Organization and Genome Mapping of all serotypes of Dengue Virus to sort out comparative genome analysis. Distribution of structural and non-structural proteins on the basis of Size. DENV Intra-specie Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in C/PrM region of Pakistan sequences, in aim to compare SNP with reference DENV genome. Protein Level Annotation to sort out motifs of super families and domains aligned between four serotypes of Dengue virus. Functional Annotation of proteins to find out functions of domains and motifs. Evolutionary Analysis of DENV C/PrM region (in focus to Pakistan C/PrM sequences) and DENV four serotypes whole genomes of whole world. Process Level Annotation. To check the importance of N-Glycosylation and O-Glycosylation in the dengue virus disease virulence.