Practical fluid flows are often associated withcomplex physical domains. Simulating such fluid flowsaccurately and efficiently remains a challenge in theComputational Fluid Dynamics. In doing so, thecomputational mesh must be able to properly representthe physical domain and be organized in an efficientway. This book describes the author s research on thedevelopment of mesh generation and multi-blockalgorithm for 2D numerical models in geometricallycomplex domains. Two improved RL elliptic generationsystems were developed by using the contributionfactors to achieve the mesh density control and theglobal balance of mesh orthogonality and smoothness.A 2D structured mesh generator--the CCHE-MESH hasbeen developed (free athttp://www.ncche.olemiss.edu/software/downloads). Amulti-block algorithm based on a consistentinterpolation method along with a Lagrangianinterpolation method was also developed. It iscapable of maintaining both mass balance and momentumbalance at the block interfaces. The proposed meshgeneration techniques and multi-block algorithm weresuccessfully applied to complex domains and producedsatisfactory results.
Is cultural taste Europeanized with respect to shared cultural values mediated by the mass media? Why is classical music appreciated over other types of music? Are there cultural snobs and who are they? Several questions are posed and answered in the course of the book in order to deepen the understanding on the mechanisms that affect cultural consumption. The cultural consumption patterns are examined within several cultural domains, which include e.g. cultural participation, artistic activities and reading and TV watching habits. The consumers of culture are found to follow several taste strategies that involve aspects of quality and quantity of consumption, and they are referred to as highbrow oriented consumer, omnivorous consumer and heavy-user of cultural consumption. The book provides a broad view on the academic discussion on taste as well as an extensive amount of empirical information on the consumption of total 57 cultural items in 15 European Union member countries. This book should be especially useful to professionals in leisure and culture industries as well as academics and students within sociology, marketing and the arts.
Over the last 30 years, Education Econmics(EE)in China was reviewed and summarized mainly depending on the personal subjective experiences and simple statistics. As a result,it is hard to objectively describe the development of EE in China. This book, therefore, provides a new visual method for Mapping Knowledge Domains (MKD), replaces vague literal description with accurate quantitative analysis to reveal the development of EE in China, transfers the mass documents in the field of EE in China to visual graphs and draws the MKD of EE in China from various angles. This is obviously better than the more traditional documents analysis that most scholars currently use. Four separate,distinctly different MKD within virtual graph are analyzed objectively are better for people to precisely grasp the history and future trend of EE in China. MKD should offer a macro and objectively perspective for scholars to analyze the overall situation of EE in China. And should be especiallyuseful to professionals in education and economy fields, or anyone else who may be considering utilizing MKD for analyzing the academic development of China.
Mass screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and removal of precursor lesions dramatically reduces both incidence and mortality from CRC. Most of the eligible U.S. population has not been screened. Disparity of screening exists within populations across the domains of race/ethnicity, gender and age. This research describes the patients eligible for colorectal cancer screening and the practice of provider ordering and patient refusal of colorectal cancer screening in one Veteran s Affairs Healthcare setting (VA). This is a descriptive cross sectional study utilizing secondary analysis of data from VA electronic medical record system. 4,315 men and women aged 50 years and older eligible for screening between 2004 - 2005. Independent variables: demographic characteristics age, gender, race. Dependent variables: provider order, type of screening, screening not indicated, patient refusal of screening. Conclusions: Providers determined screening was not indicated primarily due to patient chronic health problems. A significant number of patients refused provider recommendations for screening. The reasons for patient refusal are unclear. Young black men refused more than any other group.
From the perspective of D-brane physics, we consider the role of the real intrinsic Riemannian geometry and describe the statistical nature of gauge and exotic instanton vacuum fluctuations. For the Veneziano-Yankielowiz/ Affleck-Dine-Seiberg and non-perturbative instanton superpotentials, the issue of the wall (in)stabilities is analysed for marginal and threshold like vacua, and their arbitrary linear combinations. Physically, for both the stationary and non-stationary statistical configurations with and without the statistical fluctuations of the gauge and exotic instanton curves, the Gaussian fluctuations over equilibrium (non)-stationary vacua accomplish a well-defined, non-degenerate, curved and regular intrinsic Riemannian manifolds for statistically admissible domains of (i) one loop renormalized mass and vacuum expectation value of the chiral field for the stationary vacua and (ii) the corresponding contributions of the instanton curves for the non-stationary vacua. As a function of the vacuum expectation value of the chiral field, the global ensemble stability and phase transition criteria algebraically reduce to the invariance of the quadratic and quartic polynomials.
In engineering practices, many boundary-value problems, which are defined in unbounded or infinite domains, such as soil-structure and fluid-structure interactions where the surrounding medium is much larger than the structure, are normally referred as unbounded problems. Those problems are wide-ranging and very important in engineering. Although it is a powerful tool for solving engineering problems, finite element method, in its basic form, has its limitation in dealing with unbounded problems. The fractal finite element method (FFEM) has been well established for crack problems in linear elastic fracture mechanics. With its application to the analysis of scattering of waves from structures immersed in an acoustic medium, it has also shown its potential in solving unbounded problems. This book is about extending the fractal finite element method to unbounded problems. In the first instance, the FFEM was used to study static problems in semi-infinite domains. It was then applied to the analysis of fluid-structure interaction in the form of "added-mass" type problems. Possibility of using the FFEM in the buckling analysis of thin embedded shells was also discussed.
The growth of fluid power has accelerated with desire to control ever-increasing quantities of power and mass with higher speeds and greater precision. More specifically, where precise motion control is desired and space and weight are limited, the convenience of a high power-to-weight ratio makes hydraulic servomechanisms ideal control elements. The objective of the monograph is to develop a design methodology to study the dynamics of the Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) of jet pipe Electrohydraulic Servovalve with built-in mechanical feedback using Finite Element Method. The FSI is established by modeling the mechanical parts, fluid filled cavities and the interaction between the two domains. Also the complete mathematical approach for performance prediction of the valve is detailed in the monograph. Selected experimentation was carried out on delicate and critical components of the valve for validation of simulation results.
This book introduces a new seven-mass biomechanical model for the mechanical vibration of vocal folds. The model is based on the body-cover layer concept of the vocal fold biomechanics, and segments the cover layer into three masses along the longitudinal direction of the vocal fold. The model is used to characterize the vocal fold dynamics of 14 human subjects with healthy and pathological vocal folds (nodule, polyp and unilateral paralysis). A semi-empirical procedure for tuning the model parameters is proposed so that the model response matches as closely as possible the experimental data obtained from high-speed videoendoscopy in the time and frequency domains. Two factors, quantifying the asymmetry between left and right vocal folds and anterior and posterior segments of the vocal folds, are introduced. Based on the value of the asymmetry factors for the 14 subjects, the 2D asymmetry space is subdivided into four regions corresponding to healthy vocal folds, nodule, polyp and unilateral paralysis. This yields a clear visual aid for clinicians, correlating the model parameters to voice quality.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Reduced mass is the "effective" inertial mass appearing in the two-body problem of Newtonian mechanics. This is a quantity with the unit of mass, which allows the two-body problem to be solved as if it were a one-body problem. Note however that the mass determining the gravitational force is not reduced. In the computation one mass can be replaced by the reduced mass, if this is compensated by replacing the other mass by the sum of both masses. The reduced mass is typically used as a relationship between two system elements in parallel, such as resistors, whether these be in the electrical, thermal, hydraulic, or mechanical domains. This relationship is determined by the physical properties of the elements as well as the continuity equation linking them. The two-body problem can be re-formulated as two independent one-body problems, a trivial one and one that involves solving for the motion of one particle in an external potential. Since many one-body problems can be solved exactly, the corresponding two-body problem can also be solved.